Research in architecture
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Above, concept of dual-extended graph. Bottom, current existing operations that transform a graph into its dual pseudograph or dual graph.
As we can see, the dual-extended graph combines simultaneously the graph and its dual-pseudo graph, including connections between their edges, which extends the notion of neighbourhood, providing a data structure that is able to capture all the aspects of spatial data.

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Carlos Molinero. Architect + PhD. in computer science. Contact: mail@carlosmolinero.com